Existe Dios (Does God Exist) is a book by the renowned Swiss theologian Hans KÃng, who explores the question of God's existence from various perspectives: philosophical, scientific, historical, and religious. KÃng argues that the question of God is not a matter of blind faith or dogmatic certainty, but a matter of rational inquiry and honest dialogue. He invites readers to join him in a journey of discovery, where they can examine the evidence and arguments for and against God's existence, and draw their own conclusions.
In this article, we will summarize some of the main points of KÃng's book, and provide a link to download the PDF version for free. We will also share some of the reviews and critiques that the book has received from other scholars and thinkers.
What Does KÃng Mean by God
Before addressing the question of God's existence, KÃng clarifies what he means by God. He rejects the idea of God as a supernatural being who intervenes in the world and performs miracles. He also rejects the idea of God as a personal being who can be addressed in prayer and worship. He defines God as \"the ultimate ground and goal of all reality\", \"the mystery of being itself\", \"the origin and destiny of all that exists\". He acknowledges that this concept of God is abstract and difficult to grasp, but he argues that it is more adequate and meaningful than the traditional images of God.
How Does KÃng Approach the Question of God's Existence
KÃng adopts a critical and dialogical approach to the question of God's existence. He does not assume that God exists or that God does not exist. He does not try to prove or disprove God's existence with logical arguments or empirical evidence. He does not appeal to any authority or tradition to settle the question. He engages with various sources of knowledge and wisdom, such as philosophy, science, history, and religion, and examines their contributions and limitations in addressing the question. He respects the diversity and plurality of views on God, and seeks to understand them in their own terms. He also recognizes the role of personal experience and existential commitment in shaping one's attitude towards God.
What Are Some of the Arguments for and Against God's Existence
KÃng surveys some of the most influential arguments for and against God's existence that have been proposed throughout history. He evaluates them critically and fairly, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Some of the arguments that he discusses are:
The cosmological argument: This argument claims that everything that exists must have a cause, and that this chain of causes cannot go back infinitely. Therefore, there must be a first cause that is uncaused and necessary, and this is what we call God.
The teleological argument: This argument claims that the order and complexity of the natural world point to a design and purpose that cannot be explained by chance or necessity. Therefore, there must be a designer and planner who is intelligent and powerful, and this is what we call God.
The ontological argument: This argument claims that the concept of God implies his existence. If we can conceive of a being that is perfect in every way, then this being must exist in reality as well as in our minds. Otherwise, it would not be perfect. Therefore, such a being exists, and this is what we call God.
The moral argument: This argument claims that the existence of objective moral values and duties presupposes a moral lawgiver who is good and authoritative. Otherwise, morality would be subjective or relative. Therefore, there must be a source and foundation of morality who is transcendent and absolute, and this is what we call God.
The existential argument: This argument claims that human beings have an innate desire for meaning, happiness, and transcendence that cannot be satisfied by anything in this world. Therefore, there must be something beyond this world that can fulfill our deepest aspirations, and this is what we call God.
The atheistic argument from evil: This argument claims that the existence of evil in the world contradicts the existence of an all-good, all-powerful, and all-knowing God. If such a God existed, he would prevent or eliminate evil. But evil exists. Therefore, such a God does not exist.